Orchiditis, orchidectomy, testicular artery, testosterone (male sex hormone)
Head of the penis
Androgenic (stimulating maleness), androgynous (characteristics of male and female appearance)
Vas deferens, vasectomy (duct carrying semen from testes, cutting the duct)
Herniorrhaphy (surgical correction of inguinal hernia)
*Testis – Did you know that testis, testify, testimonial and testament all share a common root meaning? Testis means “witness” in Latin. As the testis witnesses to manhood, you may witness to the truth at trial, proclaim your favorite brand of corn flakes or witness to your final wishes in your will. If you die without a will, you die “intestate,” without having witnessed.
Male reproductive system diseases
Hypospadias – literally “below the fleshy spike.” A condition in which the external urinary meatus (opening) opens anywhere below the tip of the penis rather than at the tip.
Hydrocele – a fluid filled sac partially surrounding the testis. Manifests itself as a swelling on the side of the scrotum. May cause discomfort. Can be surgically corrected. And, who would most likely be doing the surgery? A urologist!
Varicocele – dilated and twisted veins of the testis, sort of “hemorrhoids” of the scrotum! Manifests itself as a swelling on the side of the scrotum which may look and feel like a “bag of worms.” May be surgically corrected if causing discomfort. This condition may also cause reduced sperm count and male sterility due to sluggish blood flow elevating testicular temperature.
Cryptorchidism – literally “hidden testicle.” A condition of lack of descent of one or both testes into the scrotum. If not corrected, usually by surgery, before puberty, can lead to sterility and increased risk of testicular cancer.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) – swelling of the prostate gland which surrounds the base of the male bladder and urethra causing difficulty urinating, dribbling, and nocturia (remember that word? See urinary system). The bane of old men! BPH becomes more common as men age.
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) – the surgical cure for BPH. An instrument inserted through the penile urethra is used to partially cut away the prostate to relieve obstruction of the urinary tract.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) – PSA is a marker protein for prostate cell secretions which can be detected with a lab test. A rising PSA may be an early sign of prostate cancer, although there may be other causes including false positive tests. How often should men get a PSA test? Check in with The Prostate Cancer Foundation.
Male reproductive system medical record
Following is an abstract of a simulated patient’s medical record. Read the record and define each term in italics. If you can’t think of the meaning, hover your cursor over the word for a tip.
A 55 year old male complains of nocturia, three to four times a night.He also states that he has difficulty getting urination started, has a small stream, and dribbles after he finishes. Sometimes he has feelings of urgency. A review of organ systems reveals that his angina, which he treats with nitroglycerine tablets, is increasing in frequency.
A rectal exam reveals prostatic hypertrophy without nodules, most likely BPH. Patient was scheduled for an ECG and coronary angiography. A referral was made to a urologist for evaluation for a TURP.
Recent medical history: hemoptysis two months ago. Bronchoscopy was unremarkable.
Past medical history: cholelithiasis treated with cholelithotripsy at age 52. Varicocelectomy at age 28.Appendectomy at age 24.
IN PLAIN ENGLISH
A 55 year old male complains of having to get up at night to urinate, three to four times a night. He also states that he has difficulty getting urination started, has a small stream, and dribbles after he finishes. Sometimes he has an urgent need to urinate. A review of organ systems reveals that his cardiac related chest pain, which he treats with nitroglycerine tablets, is increasing in frequency.
A rectal exam reveals an enlarged prostate without nodules, most likely Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (nonlife-threatening enlargement of the prostate). Patient was scheduled for an electrocardiogram (recording of the electrical activity of the heart) and X-rays of the arteries of the heart. A referral was made to a specialist in diseases of the male reproductive system and lower urinary tract for possible transurethral resection of the prostate (partial internal removal of prostatic tissue).
Recent medical history: spitting up blood from the lungs two months ago. Passing a fiberoptic instrument into the lung passageways did not determine a cause.
Past medical history: gallstones treated with high frequency sound waves smashing stones to small particles that can pass in the stool at age 52. Removal of enlarged testicular veins at age 28. Removal of appendix at age 24.
Male reproductive system mythology
GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY IS ALIVE AND WELL!
Membrane surrounding entrance of vagina
Hymen – the Greek god of marriage
A chemical purported to stimulate sexual desire
Aphrodite- The Greek goddess of love
A sexually transmitted infectious disease
Venus – the Roman goddess of love
A condition where both ovarian and testicular tissue are found in the same individual
Hermaphroditus* – the offspring of Hermes and Aphrodite who looked female but had male genitalia
A continuous, painful erection
Priapus – the Roman god of male potency
A condition of compulsive sexual desire in men.
Satyr- a woodland deity part man and part goat. Most notable for chasing nymphs.
In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus was the son of Hermes, messenger of the gods, and Aphrodite, the goddess of love. He was a handsome young man. One day while swimming in a woodland pool, one of the Naiads, nymphs of wells, springs and ponds, spied him and instantly fell in love with him. She swam out to him, embraced him professing her love. He rejected her advances. Angry at being rejected, she prayed to the gods that they never be separated again. The ancient gods had a whimsical, sometimes cruel, sense of humor and bound their bodies into one, ever inseparable. Be careful what you ask for? The curse of the answered prayer?
In classic art, Hermaphroditus is portrayed as a woman with male genitalia. True hermaphrodites exist, although they are rare, but most commonly have a male-type body with ambiguous genitalia. Internally, both ovarian and testicular tissue are present either as separate organs or an ovotestis. Related sex structures are poorly developed or absent.